The following article was contributed by Will Woods as part of our Inside Vancouver’s Hidden Past series.
“Victory belongs to the most persevering” [Napoleon Bonaparte]
This week I took my first summer stroll round the Stanley Park seawall, passing of course beneath the giant frame of the Lions Gate bridge. The air cools under the bridge and even on the sunniest of days it is gloomy and dark under there. A very different feeling to the bridge deck, with its tremendous views of downtown and the North Shore.
To many Vancouverites the Lions Gate Bridge feels part of the fabric of the city. A major artery connecting downtown and the North Shore. It is one of our city’s most famous landmarks.
Yet the existence of the Lions Gate Bridge is due in large part to the determination and entrepreneurial spirit of one man – Alfred “AJT” Taylor.
Born 1887 in Victoria, Taylor was an engineering contractor by trade. By the ‘roaring twenties’ Taylor was one of Vancouver’s up-and-coming entrepreneurs, with business interests throughout BC in mining and construction. Closer to home, he became convinced that real estate gold lay on the forested slopes of West Vancouver.
Back then West Van was a fairly remote and unpopulated place with only 3,000 residents. Since there was no bridge over Burrard Inlet’s ‘first narrows’, getting to Vancouver proper from West Van meant taking a ferry or a long drive via the second narrows.
Taylor knew that if a bridge were built over the first narrows then suddenly West Vancouver would become a very desirable place to live. Commute times to downtown Vancouver would fall to minutes, rather than hours. He skillfully secured the provincial franchise for the bridge and immediately set about the political campaigning necessary to win public support.
Taylor had some heavyweight opposition. The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) had extensive land-holdings in downtown Vancouver and upscale Shaughnessy. The CPR was worried that any plan to develop West Vancouver would mean these prestigious land-holdings becoming devalued. They were prepared to fight, lobbying the City of Vancouver hard to turn-down the proposal.
Ultimately it would go to a vote. Taylor vs. the CPR. In 1927 a plebiscite was put to the citizens of Vancouver on Taylor`s bridge proposal. Interestingly, Vancouverites turned down Taylor`s plans. The reason? A reluctance to build a road through the city’s most prized asset, Stanley Park.
But Taylor was nothing if not determined. After moving to London to lick his wounds and consider his next move, he quickly used his considerable powers of persuasion to convince the wealthy Guinness family to become his financial backers (yes, the same family whose company makes the beer!).
Taylor formed a company, British Pacific Properties Ltd., that was bankrolled by the Guinness family. With his provincial franchise for the bridge, and now some serious financial muscle, he was ready for a second assault on the first narrows.
Moving back to Vancouver in 1930 he found the Great Depression was starting to take its toll on BC. With the Municipality of West Vancouver in serious financial trouble, he made them an offer. $75,000 for 4,700 acres of land. Equating to $18.75 an acre. In return Taylor’s company promised to contribute around $1M of improvements to the municipality, such as building water mains and installing electric cabling.
(Incidentally, a single acre of land in West Vancouver today will set you back around $3M – $5M.)
Given their parlous financial state the Municipality of West Vancouver gladly accepted Taylor’s low-ball offer and a big piece of Taylor’s puzzle fell into place. The Great Depression also helped another piece of the puzzle move into position. Keeping Stanley Park pristine didn’t feel so important when people were losing their jobs and homes. Any proposal for a large scale construction project that would create jobs and drive further development suddenly got a much warmer reception.
Taylor personally financed a second plebiscite in 1933 and this time he got the result he wanted. Vancouver’s electorate overwhelmingly supported the project, passing it by 2-1 margin.
Perhaps inevitably the battle was not yet over for Taylor. Four more years of wrangling with the federal government followed his plebiscite win. Undoubtedly the CPR had a hand in dissuading the feds from approving the project, but legitimate concerns about the impact of the bridge construction on the shipping lane beneath it were also wrestled over.
Finally Prime Minister William Lyon MacKenzie King officially approved the project in 1936 and work began on March 31, 1937. Amazingly the shipping lane through Burrard Inlet only closed for one single hour during the entire construction of the bridge, at 4.50am on May 2, 1938. (Beat that Port Mann bridge workers!).
On Nov 12, 1938 the Lions Gate bridge opened and the rest, as they say, is history.
Alfred Taylor died in New York City aged 57 in 1945. According to his wishes, he was cremated and his ashes scattered from the Lions Gate Bridge. Next time you stroll under the Lions Gate on a walk round the Stanley Park seawall, spare a thought for one of city’s most driven entrepreneurs – the man who built the Lions Gate bridge.
Will Woods is founder and Chief Storyteller at Forbidden Vancouver (www.forbiddenvancouver.ca)